Liability

In a few cases, fault in a car crash is rather easy to establish. For example, if Debra Defendant is talking on her cellphone while driving her own vehicle on her own time when she rear-ends Paula Plaintiff, who is stopped in traffic and waiting at a red light, Debra is clearly at fault and clearly responsible for Paula’s damages.

But assume Paula pulled out in front of Debra in traffic and Debra rear-ended Paula. Who is at fault in that scenario? Or assume Debra was hauling goods for XYZ Company in a delivery truck when she hit Paula. Who is responsible for damages in that scenario?

Liability is a two-part inquiry. First, the responsible party, or responsible parties, must be identified. Second, the appropriate party, or parties, must pay damages.

First Party Liability in Car Crashes

The crash between Debra and Paula did not happen by chance or by accident. Most likely, the choices both parties made in the hours, minutes, and moments before the collision caused the wreck.

Decisional liability has to do with the choices made, or not made, before operators start driving. Typically, these decisions revolve around the three types of impairment. Although the sources (alcohol, drugs, and fatigue) are very different, the effects are quite similar.

In most cases, drivers are alcohol-impaired after only one drink. Alcohol is an antidepressant, so people who drink nearly always experience a sense of release and euphoria. When it comes to driving, this feeling of euphoria often means that operators are slower to recognize dangerous situations and more willing to push the envelope in terms of their driving habits. That extra few ticks on the speedometer or half-second delay before tapping the brakes can mean the difference between a safe drive home and a serious injury collision. There are also physical symptoms, such as blurred vision and slower reaction times, that are extremely dangerous when operating heavy machinery, including motor vehicles.

Contrary to popular myth, much drugged driving results from abuse of prescription and over-the-counter medications. Many painkillers and antidepressants are very powerful and have serious side-effects even when patients take them exactly as directed. Taking too many pills, or taking pills while not under a doctor’s care, can be even worse. Similarly, many over-the-counter sleep aids and other medicines have active ingredients that required prescriptions just  few years ago.

Fatigued drivers have many of the same issues as drugged and drunk drivers. In fact, driving after eighteen consecutive waking hours is like driving with a .08 BAC, which is above the legal limit in both Nevada and California. Moreover, most of the tips and tricks that observers once suggested, like turning up the radio volume, may make drivers feel more alert for a few minutes, but the effect quickly passes. Also, these tricks do nothing to remedy the impaired judgement and motor skills associated with fatigued driving.

Behavioral liability, or the choices that drivers make just before the crash, is the second liability area. Typically, behavioral liability is associated with motor vehicle code violations, like speeding, illegal lane changes, ignoring traffic control devices, and the like. Distracted driving is also a serious issue, which is why California lawmakers recently expanded the cellphone ban. Previously, the ban only applied to talking or texting; the amended VC 23123.5, which takes effect January 1, makes it illegal to “use or hold” a cellphone or other electronic device.

Finally, there is environmental liability. Many drivers fail to adjust to adverse conditions, like rain or darkness, by slowing down and driving more carefully. Additionally, although it is easier to drive on familiar streets than unfamiliar ones, many drivers do not acknowledge or appreciate the difference.

In most car crash cases, the insurance company tries to shift blame to the victim, to reduce or deny recovery. Contributory negligence is one of the most common arguments. To return to the previous example, assume Paula made an illegal lane change, and Debra — who was speeding — rear-ended her. In cases like this, the juries must apportion fault on a percentage basis.

California is a pure comparative fault state that divides liability based solely on the percentage of fault. Assume the damages were $100,000 and the jury splits fault 50-50. In California, Paula would receive $50,000. But if the same crash and same result occurred in Nevada, Paula would get nothing. That’s because the Silver State is a modified comparative fault state with a 51 percent bar. So, if the defendant’s liability is not at least 51 percent, the plaintiff is ineligible for recovery.

Third Party Liability in Crash Cases

Many states have dram shop laws that hold commercial alcohol providers liable for damages if their intoxicated patrons later injure someone. But Nevada has never had a dram shop law and California legislators recently did away with the Golden State’s version of that law.

Other third party liability theories may apply, such as respondeat superior (“let the master answer”). In a nutshell, if the tortfeasor (negligent driver) was an employee acting within the course and scope of employment at the time of the crash, the employer is at least partially responsible for the victim’s damages. All the relevant terms are defined in broad and plaintiff-friendly terms.

Third party liability is often important because so many drivers are under-insured. Nevada has one of the lowest minimum auto insurance policy requirements in the country, and California’s requirements are not much higher. While it is relatively easy to collect damages from insurance companies, it is difficult, but not impossible, to collect from individuals.

Understanding Bicycle Accidents – California

With mild weather almost year long, California was made for outdoor activities, like bicycling. Unfortunately, most streets in the Golden State were not made for bicycles. Back in the day, the car was the king, and road layouts largely match that attitude. There have been some changes recently, but for the most part, bike lanes are narrow or nonexistent and laws are not very favorable. The culture of the car also means that motorists do not always look out for bicyclists.

As a result, California led the way amongst all other U.S. states in bicycle fatalities between 2010 – 2012, with 338 deaths. In fact, when a fast-moving 4,000-pound car hits a slow-moving 15-pound bicycle, the results are almost always tragic for riders. Fortunately, injured victims have a number of legal options in these situations.

Bicycle Accident Causes

Most of these collisions occur during the summer months and during the day, because of the prevalence of child riders during these months and hours. Children are not as visible in traffic and may not be as familiar with the rules of the road as older bikers.

According to a report from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the most common reason for cycling accidents is collision with a car (29%). Riders are normally not seriously injured if the vehicles are moving 20mph or slower, but they are nearly always seriously injured or killed if the vehicles are traveling 40mph or faster. Speed increases the force in a collision and also reduces reaction time. That latter condition is especially important with regard to bicyclist visibility, a point that is discussed below.

While some drivers speed and ignore traffic laws, others should never have gotten behind the wheel at all, because they were already dangerously impaired. Such impairment can come from:

  • Alcohol: After just one drink, most people experience loss of muscle control, and they are also unable to quickly make good decisions.
  • Drugs: Legal painkillers, sleep aids, antidepressants, and other medicine, if they are used improperly, are as dangerous as illegal “street drugs,” like heroin and cocaine.
  • Fatigue: Statistics show that driving after being awake for eighteen consecutive hours is like driving with a .08 BAC.

Moreover, many people operate motor vehicles while they are distracted by eating, using a cellphone, talking to passengers, and countless other non-driving activities.

Damages Available

In California, bicycle crash victims are entitled to cash compensation for their economic, out-of-pocket losses. These damages include items like medical bills, lost wages, physical rehabilitation costs, and medical device expenses. With regard to medical bills and other medical expenses, attorneys often send letters of protection to third-party providers that guarantee payment when the case is resolved. So, victims get the medical care they need without having to pay out-of-pocket or rely on health insurance.

Noneconomic damages are available as well, for things like pain and suffering, loss of consortium (companionship), loss of enjoyment in life, and emotional distress. Although it is impossible to put a dollar value on the quality of life, money damages are normally the only kind of relief that the law allows.

In some cases, victims are entitled to additional punitive damages. In California, the jury may assess additional damages to deter future wrongdoing and punish the tortfeasor (negligent driver) if the victim presents clear and convincing evidence that the tortfeasor intentionally disregarded the property and safety of others by undertaking a course of action known to be dangerous. A cap may apply, in some cases.

Legal Issues In Bicycle Crash Cases

To obtain these damages, victims must prove that the tortfeasor was at fault for the wreck. Such proof must be a preponderance of the evidence, which means there is more evidence in favor of the plaintiff. Put another way, if there are two stacks of paper side by side, and a person adds one sheet to the stack on the left, there is more paper in that stack than there is in the other one. Normally, there is a two-year statute of limitations in negligence cases.

Even if the motorists are clearly at fault, both they and their insurance companies often try to shift blame onto the victims. As mentioned earlier, visibility is sometimes an issue here. Indeed, tortfeasors often make statements at the scene like “he came out of nowhere” and “I never even saw her.” However, lack of visibility is never an excuse for negligence, because if it was, no one would ever cause a car crash at night or in the rain.

Bikers have a reputation for not following some traffic laws, like coming to a complete stop at stop signs or signaling turns. If a bicyclist coasts through a stop sign or makes an illegal lane change, the insurance company often tried to use the sudden emergency defense. This doctrine excuses liability if the tortfeasor was reacting to an unexpected situation. However, traffic law violations are not normally considered unexpected situations, because such events are so common. Therefore, the sudden emergency defense typically is inapplicable in bicycle crashes.

Personal Injury Overview

Personal injury is derived from tort law. The purpose of tort law is to give private parties a legal mechanism through which the aggrieved party can recover for harm inflicted by the “at-fault” party. Whether you’re in California or Nevada, personal injury cases have similarities that transcend state lines.

DUTY

The first question one must understand is whether the person who caused the harm owed you a duty of care. In general, one is held to the “reasonable person” standard. In other words, if you injure someone in the course of your daily activities, the question becomes whether you acted in a reasonable manner.

On the other hand, someone might be held to a higher duty of care based on their relationship to you or professional standing. A doctor will be held to a higher standard when aiding a person in distress than a non-medical professional.

BREACH OF DUTY

A defendant is negligent if he breaches the duty of care owed to the plaintiff. This occurs when the defendant fails to use reasonable care in the performance of his or her duty. Whether the defendant breached the duty care is a question of fact for the jury.

CAUSATION

Causation is an often overlooked, but critical component, of tort law. If the defendant failed to use reasonable care and is found to have been negligent, you must also prove that the defendant’s actions were the cause of your damages. An important concept connected to this is the plaintiff’s duty to mitigate. In other words, after being in a car accident you have a duty to mitigate the damages by seeking medical assistance. If you suffer a broken leg in a car accident, fail to seek medical care, and the injury becomes more serious, the at-fault driver would not be required to pay for additional medical treatment required by your failure to seek prompt medical treatment.

Additionally, the at-fault party is only responsible for the damages directly caused by his or her negligence. In other words, assume again you’re in a car accident. After the accident you drive yourself to the hospital and get into another accident because the first accident resulted in damage to your vision. While you would not have gotten into the second car accident had it not been for the first, the at-fault party in the first accident would not be held liable for the damages you incurred in the second accident.

DAMAGES

Once it is established that the other party was negligent caused your damages, you have the right to seek financial recovery for both economic and non-economic damages. Economic damages include lost wages, medical expenses, and property damage. Non-economic damages includes pain and suffering, loss of consortium, and punitive damages.

However, your reward may be reduced if the court finds that you were partly at-fault for the accident. For example, assume you were in a car accident and it is determined that you were 20% at-fault. In that case, your award will be reduced by twenty-percent.